More and more Africans are interested in poultry farming and see it as a main income-generating activity. From the management of resources to the choice of the breed of chicken through the maintenance of the henhouse, it is important to know certain rules to get started in this project.
The necessary knowledge
To get started in raising chickens, one must learn about the different breeds of chickens (hybrid breeds, local breeds and commercial breeds), the local breeding market, and the lifespan of chickens. closed. Knowledge of poultry feed is essential (usually feed).
The most practiced breeding is the breeding in concentrations. However, it implies needs for industrial products.
Still, chickens can feed on the ground. In fact, poultry find a lot of food on their own (seeds, insects, maggots, grass, etc.) which are excellent food sources (proteins and minerals in particular). But when the poultry are locked up, they can no longer access this food source, hence the complementary products, vitamins, minerals, vaccines, etc. The ideal would be to keep the chickens in the open air to avoid these additional expenses.
How to learn?
Raising poultry does not require special skills. However, it requires a lot of experience to avoid seeing his chickens die from epidemics or be attacked by mealworms. For that, one can approach the breeders and attend the poultry fairs. If necessary, one can:
● Get training from poultry farmers (qualifying training, support for agricultural networks)
● Choose a commercial positioning (concentration, organic, outdoor, etc.) and a distribution network
● Identify the field and the suppliers of feed and poultry
● List start-up needs and current expenses
● Develop communication tools
● Start production
How much do you need?
The total amount will depend on the number of chickens you want to raise. If the breeding building is available and the labor is family-owned, a minimum of 1850 FCFA must be provided, or 2.82 euros of investment per chicken produced in 45 days, distributed as follows:
● Chick ……… ……… ..405 FCFA 21.89%
● Food ……………… .1 312.3 FCFA 70.94%
● Veterinary products… .1 32.7 FCFA 7.17%
● Total …………… …… ..1 850 FCFA 100%
What equipment or material?
To build the henhouse, you have to choose a space sheltered from the elements and predators. The hen house must be divided into two areas: the walk pen and the shelter for sleeping or laying (if you are raising layers). The maximum herd size is 3000 animals per building. The equipment of the hen house consists of drinkers (pipette) and feeders, litter (nest part), wood chips and perch.
A processing room can be provided if necessary, in particular to transform the eggs into food products. This second activity can help supplement income. In addition, regular cleaning (at least once a week) should be carried out.
A supply of food to be supplied regularly is also to be expected. The average consumption of a chicken is 135 g of feed and 200 ml of water per hen per day. Feeding takes place several times a day, at fixed times.
NB: for laying hens, it should be noted that a healthy hen can produce more than 220 eggs per year; its productivity will drop after 3 years (think of a regular purchase of hens to balance the average age).
Where to get supplies?
Chickens can be found in markets or at breeders, and chicks directly from hatcheries. Poultry fairs are a great way to get information about sourcing equipment and raw materials from breeders.
How to find customers?
The clientele is made up of households, restaurants and retailers. To build a clientele, you can highlight the specificities of your poultry (insist on nutritional intake and breeding conditions).
At what volume / time do we become profitable?
The profitability of a chicken farm will depend on several factors:
● The size of the farm and the cost of initial investments
● The weight of the chicken
● The cost of purchasing raw materials
● The rate of loss (diseases, epidemics)
● Crawl spaces
● The selling price of chicken and eggs (the margin will be better in direct sales to the consumer.)
Poultry activity can be started with a flock of 250 chicks. The margin is to be made on the price of the chicks, the expenses related to the breeding, the maintenance of the farm and the labor (for a start, the activity does not require a large labor force). artwork).
The average selling price of a chicken varies from 3000 to 9000 FCFA [between 4.57 and 13.70 euros], and the average selling price of eggs is 75 FCFA (0.11 euro). On the basis of a margin of 1000 FCFA per chicken for example, and a sale of 200 chickens per day, (taking into account the possible losses related to the activity) we can achieve a figure of 200,000 FCFA on average per day, or about 304 euros. Added to this is the sale of eggs and chicken manure as fertilizer.